BEIJING — Mines around the world are cutting output due to the coronavirus pandemic, leaving top metals consumer China fretting over supply as it recovers from the initial demand shock that the outbreak inflicted on its economy.
China boosted copper imports year-on-year in March as it looks to reboot industrial activity across the country, but potential shortages of key metal-making raw materials create risks to production of everything from home appliances to electric vehicle batteries.
Below is a list of minerals for which China has a high import dependence.
COPPER CONCENTRATE Key suppliers: Chile, Peru China last year relied on imports for almost 80% of its copper concentrate, based on International Copper Study Group data. The partially processed ore is used to make copper metal, a staple of the power and construction industries.
Exports from top supplier Chile have been largely unaffected despite a coronavirus state of emergency, but in Peru some miners have reduced shipments or even suspended operations altogether.
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Chinese smelters are becoming “very nervous” about supplies, says a South American miner, while treatment charges are in freefall, pointing to a tighter market.
NICKEL ORE Key suppliers: Philippines, New Caledonia Imports from Indonesia dwarfed China’s domestic output in 2019, but the Southeast Asian country has banned nickel ore exports and inventories at Chinese ports are at their lowest since June 2018, data from research house Antaike show.
The biggest miners of nickel in alternative supplier the Philippines have halted some operations to comply with virus containment measures.
BAUXITE Key suppliers: Guinea, Australia, Indonesia Bauxite imports accounted for around 40% of China’s 2019 production of alumina, which is used to make aluminum, estimates CRU analyst Wan Ling.
Top supplier Guinea has seen no disruption so far and Australian spot bauxite prices remain low.
“There have been some confirmed cases in the bauxite mines in Guinea and there could be more,” Wan says. “We need to see what the government will do in terms of controlling the coronavirus.”
TIN CONCENTRATE Key suppliers: Myanmar China relies on imports for 30%-35% of its tin concentrate, says Cui Lin, the International Tin Association’s chief China representative, with the vast majority coming from neighboring Myanmar.
Inbound shipments, which fell year-on-year in January and February, have not been directly impacted by coronavirus-related disruptions, but mines in Myanmar are short of Chinese workers willing to cross the border to maintain ore processing operations, says Cui. “We think maybe it will be better from May.”
Large Chinese smelters have enough concentrate in stock to last three-four months, but private producers face a difficult time in April and the first half of next month, Cui says. CHROMIUM & MANGANESE ORE Key suppliers: South Africa China relies heavily for the stainless steel ingredients on South Africa, which has extended a coronavirus lockdown until end-April but is now allowing mines to produce at up to 50% capacity.
The impact of the South Africa lockdown at present is “quite limited,” but an extension would likely lead to disruptions, said Concord Resources research director Duncan Hobbs.
“It’s very difficult to see how South African supplies in either of those markets could be replaced from other sources.”
COBALT Key suppliers: D.R. Congo China has a near total reliance on Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the world’s biggest cobalt producer, for cobalt hydroxide used in EV batteries.
DRC cobalt exports fell 15% fall in the first-quarter and its mining minister has warned that mine shutdowns due to the pandemic would be “catastrophic,” while shipments could be disrupted if truck drivers taking DRC cobalt to ports are subject to quarantine in Zambia.