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This is the most widely used alloying addition in steelmaking, and is present in virtually every grade of steel.

Manganese (Mn) has three key benefits. It combines with sulphur in the melt to improve the hot working properties of the resulting steel, it acts as a deoxidant, and it makes an important contribution to the final toughness and hardness of the steel.

It is mostly added as ferro-manganese (FeMn), but can be added as silico-manganese (SiMn) depending on the final steel grade required.

FeMn is produced from manganese ore or concentrate mostly in electric arc furnaces, and is generally categorised as high, medium or low carbon material. In commercially traded grades the Mn content is often in the range 75-80%, though it can be 65-82%. Carbon content is usually in the range 1.5-7.5%.

Manganese can also be added to the melt in the form of spiegeleisen – pig iron with a high manganese content. And for more detail click and see wikipedia entry.



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